tv Doc Film - Jewish Dream - Arab Nightmare The Creation of Israel Deutsche Welle April 18, 2018 9:15pm-10:00pm CEST
this year and lifting some silverware with frankfurt wouldn't be a bad dress rehearsal for coaches next job. i'll be back at the top of the hour with more world news followed by the day i just give it. to. the whole d w one. for any focus global insights the news out for local heroes. the double made for minds.
for millennia jews have been praying to return to jerusalem in one hundred forty eight it seemed that prime is one answer but was a cool as for celebration. jerusalem was always his home until a june born in palestine jews and arabs a line were known as palestinians until nine hundred forty eight as a boy adam is some an arab played with his jewish neda's boss and nine hundred forty eight only the jews were rejoicing finally a state of their own a jewish homeland for example for us to eyes on who had survived the auschwitz to camp. design a stream was coming true for pioneers like seaman belmont born in berlin he fled the nazis when he was young now the arab palestinians were refugees but who's to blame for their fate saddo sulaiman has waited for all those decades to return five people five stories a small country and it's great history but where did it start. we
start with. his family has lived here for generations ruelas came and went and the family adopted. an arab as not really passport when israel was founded he was just ten years old. when we were kids my brother and i had to work at the market to help our parents. we were barefoot we had no money for shoes. report creates a venture to bills on a car. later he had his own truck as an independent freight forwarder he's constantly on the move supplying supermarkets and large companies throughout israel.
this is where he worked as a child field market in arca his hometown in the northwest of the country traditionally many of the vendors here are arabs and many of their customers are jews. the bloody middle east conflict with its horrifying images seems far away from here that surprising since in the past after was the scene of so many wars greeks arabs crusaders and napoleon they all wanted to conquer the city. the british arrived. in nine hundred seventeen from nine hundred twenty on they governed palestine and offered both arabs and jews the prospect of their own state in the distant future. abu azzam grew up in the old town of upper close to the market. his family lived in two rooms in this house. his father ali owned
a livelihood by hiring out donkeys. his mother nef is a cad for the nine children. schools were too expensive so the siblings spent most of their time outdoors. here they got to know the children of the neighborhood with him they explored the world. and when we were kids we always used to play together the jewish and arab children. we buy candy read up everywhere in the stores in the alleyways. we called them jewish arabs. there were sons of our country have it now even. then. it's three kilometers from africa to nk honey fronts it's what's known as a kibbutz a type of israeli community. older brother mohamed worked here. and there i can i will absolutely. he was very happy there he worked there.
he got his salary there. he made a lot of money working at the slaughter house with the cows. they must laugh. at the isms brother encountered people with new ideas and a vision of a socialist jewish community solidarity and peace with a neighbor this. little boats to alice would use from poland who had fled anti semitism and their own timeline and. they bought the swamp land for the new beginning from the british. jewish settlers everywhere when training swamps and making the desert bloom israel still takes pride in that today. she arrived during the time that apple is some spreader mohamed worked here before
he came a complete snake a member of the can but his name was seen on belmont. we could start the history of israel with hand his life was saved by palestine. the city kid from berlin became a strong field worker and loved it he quickly found friends including arab ones. they had the might to be that the child had a god but back then i worked with a flock of sheep and when we went out with the herd we'd meet lots of arabs and i learned arabic from them mostly from them and we became very good friends for. a year earlier he was still the shy boy from golan's jewish quarter his parents had fled there from persecution in poland to no avail and nine hundred thirty eight the berlin business was destroyed. to save their son from the nazis they sent him to palestine on the last transport of jewish children in one thousand nine hundred thirty nine he was fourteen years old. he had no idea then that he
would never see his parents again for him the trip was a great adventure. resorted to like his in harbor from shift i mean seeing the land from the ship it was like a dream my sister was at the harbor waiting for me. becomes what she had come to palestine three years earlier. and that feeling that it was the dream. during the nazi period two hundred thousand european jews fled to palestine it was their only hope almost all other borders were close to them by nine hundred thirty nine palestine's jewish population had tripled. shimon first went to tel aviv it was a modern city that reminded him of the land. founded in one thousand and nine it was a piece of europe in the middle east administered by the british. both jews and arabs
were officially stateless both saw jerusalem as the holy site. for the jews it was the historic eternal home arabs who are now the majority in palestine but the jews proverbial longing for zion remained. three centuries before danny and giles family had joined the small jewish presence in jerusalem he grew up in a liberal cosmopolitan household speaking hebrew french dinner and arabic. by iranian arabs who come to the jewish part of the city because of the cafes the dance clubs and the cinemas. but. in one thousand twenty six dennis parents asked and shlomo and tell founded a small bakery with twenty five workers jews and arabs danny built a business up to become one of israel's largest bakeries to hand it was not just
a factory but a home with jews and arabs working side by side. the history of israel is also the story of danny and he lived out his parents' train they believed in a peaceful middle east without hatred and without borders. but even as a child danny learned that this togetherness shouldn't be taken for granted. arab extremists attacked the jewish quarter of hebron and nine hundred twenty nine killing sixty seven people including his uncle's entire family. danny was just ten years old. the. official on that was a disaster. and utterly inhuman act and people were slaughtered and berg. was there for. many accounts blame the grand mufti of jerusalem hodge i mean our husseini the
british had appointed him the supreme muslim cleric a representative of the arab population he was to ensure noor in order but hebron was only the beginning the more genes sought refuge in palestine the more threatened saini salta arab interests in one thousand thirty six he founded and headed the influential arab higher committee from then on the riots became part of everyday life especially in jerusalem. of its head. after the arab revolt broke out arabs and jews separate. lives you can't be in love with each other when you're at war. jews have been arming themselves since before nine hundred twenty the illegal underground militia had and now was a trained combat troop tolerated by the british administration dannie the baker's son was seventeen years old and practically
a veteran he joined the hudna at fourteen back when it was still banned and the british were the enemy. just seven years later and nine hundred thirty nine down and jail became a british soldier. world war two had begun and like danny fifty thousand jews volunteered to join the british army the common foe was now adult hitler. danny was welcomed by the british he was fluent in arabic and worked as an interpreter for the military his first deployment was in north africa where german troops had already arrived. the followers of the grand mufti sided with hitler the enemy of the jews. hitler received the arab leader in one nine hundred forty one. if you're not and think the future a welcomes the grand mufti of jerusalem one of the most influential arab nationalists the grand mufti is the religious head of the arabs in palestine and their chief judge and financial of visual the british persecuted him for his
nationalist stance and put a price of twenty five thousand pounds on his head a risky route via italy brought him to germany you know until you but you died you not died shot. in the same year nine hundred forty one she won by nine then sixteen years old join the british army that's it and as a friend it wasn't a matter of revenge we wanted to show that jews can defend themselves to show that we can also fight and we fought and we have to give up. many g.'s felt like shimon simony that the british set up a special formation the jewish brigade with five thousand soldiers. she was. unit fought in europe and italy belgium and holland. then the war ended and he won search for his parents began. but all he found in berlin was a menorah that his parents had left behind for him. it
was then that he realized that his family had saved his life by sending him to palestine they themselves had vanished for him in europe it was a jewish graveyard. imad survivors of the camps that may see it if it is more dead than alive. to the liberated bergen belsen concentration camp the british set up a displaced persons camp a d.p. camp for those left homeless. it was a new stuff for astor eyes and. the sixteen year old from poland was the only one of her family to survive africa's. now she was slowly really learning what it meant to live without fear. today she uses the dreadful experiences of her youth and her art. to understand the history
of israel we also have to listen to people like esther eyes on their memories the longing for a jewish home the hope for the future. i did see it out that you only caught i was young and had enough strength to fight for my life. i told myself i'm the last of my family the only survivor. i thought that it was my job to continue but i had no choice it was piers survival instinct. there was no other way i had to go on living. but when you. estan in europe would never be her home again. she could only stay. over in the jewish country. but the waiting list for palestine was long. three hundred thousand jews in germany demanded to be allowed to travel to palestine there were protests in the d.p. camps. and in television jews took to the streets calling for
unrestricted integration for the survivors of the nazi genocide. but the british had restricted entry since one thousand nine hundred nine and now that the common enemy hitler was defeated the jews were yesterday's allies. it became a matter of safeguarding the future political interests for which the british needed the arab states they reversed their promise to build a home for the jews in palestine a shock for the jewish people a violent response came from the underground zionist militant movement. in july nine hundred forty six it bombed the king david hotel in jerusalem the british administrative headquarters. ninety one people were killed. the british response was severe detained a group members were held in the old prison where they were reportedly tortured and
some were executed. the more moderate had another group rejected terrorism it wanted to take action as in conspicuously as possible and tried to smuggle in jews from europe but many of the attempts failed in july nine hundred forty seven the british captured the ship that would go down in history as the exodus nineteen thirty seven. four and a half thousand would be jewish immigrants were sent back to the country of the perpetrators germany. as the eyes and were supposed to be one of the passengers by chance she remained at the bergen belsen d.p. camp where she met the love of her life. for esther. love was the miracle that made them believe in the future again together in israel. they all the time he asked me to marry him shortly afterwards we married in bergen
belsen exactly one day before the u.n. voted on the partition of palestine in november forty seven. and. now. argentina. and you know i mean. i'm still you know. yeah. united kingdom. and france. we managed very. yeah. yeah it was hard you know i'm sorry the vote took three minutes and it changed the world. out there don't really. want to stop but by thirty people in ukraine you know i think. the dream of many jews had come true. they would receive part of palestine this was where the state would come into the jubilation in tel aviv and not only that they would have to hold up quite i all know if we
danced the hora young and old everyone ran to the main square bergen belsen it's impossible to describe. and it was a strange time we were all still in mourning for the ones we had lost our world had collapsed. as they picked up only our call and then this day there was euphoria and great joy that there was still a future for us yes yes and that we had not suffered in vain. differently and i'm going to share not argue that i mean we didn't have a radio at homes but my brother who worked at the keyboards told us about a division alitalia i said i'm not out out of most arabs or against it only if you like to and we were among them. we thought we could now govern ourselves instead of being ruled by the british. man that division meant the jews would rule one part
we another and in the end we could live together and there in asia. but the partition plan made a patchwork of palestine unfavorable for both sides the arabs rejected the plan the jews accepted it after the holocaust they wanted their own state unconditionally. the arab countries were incensed to them all of palestine was arab. they wanted to prevent a jewish state by all means over two hundred years but killed in two months of violence. and the nazi collaborator grand mufti had janina husseini back to the escalating violence supported by iraqi and syrian militants. often in war that all those many of the palestinian arabs especially from the
middle and upper class did not like the same leadership it was extremist that was fanatical it was stupid. they didn't want to fight under the leaders and hussein the gunman. the mufti eliminated those who opposed his policy of violence. in the winter of one hundred forty seven arab militias besieged the jewish part of jerusalem's old city the population was cut off from the outside world. the situation seemed hopeless those trapped in the city were supplied with food that was smuggled in but they were cold and hungry nonetheless. they enjoy the bakery also made deliveries not only of bread. we smuggle guns and some of our sacks of bread. i had
a british friend who turned a blind eye. it was important for us to provide the population with bread but we also took the opportunity to help them out a little with guns in. the north slope of. the jewish defenses were proving ineffective money arab attacks intensifies. the problem was that by april april and early me one thousand nine hundred forty eight the jewish side it wasn't winning the war at by the beginning of april and it knew that the arab states intended to send their armies into palestine to help the palestinians to defeat the jews there the jews knew this the arab states continuously said we're going to invade a so they had to basically clear the rear areas before the arab states invaded before the armies of the arab states invaded because they knew that if they have to
fight along the front lines against arab states and in the rear their arab militias shooting them from that that they were not going to win the war. four hundred arab villages were destroyed or depopulated by the jews in this war. like lift or near jerusalem the abandoned houses are a reminder of the fates have the palestinian people. little is left of the arab village staying at. the site is now an industrial area on the outskirts of jerusalem the n.t.l. bakery is located here. in ash and delhi is seeing. move on i didn't like what happened in derry a scene. so. it was a great shock to me. and to many other jews. that's not the
right way. only the cemetery recalls day you're seeing how the recognizable amid the rubble. day is seen as a symbol of the nakba the disaster of the exodus that took place after jewish militias invaded their village on the eighth of april one thousand nine hundred eight. have been marvellous checked him out of. the tree then an hour before the battle began my people and i stood guard where that house is standing. how to shine i know you're much. there at about half past two in the morning i went home to make tea for my people. added bit of a. gesture one of us at home making tea. i didn't realize that the jewish fighters had surrounded the whole village. and
were attacking but we just did it better. to vent twenty year old evel mom and trying to defend his village against the invading fighters from the extremist underground there but militia they claimed that iraqi irregulars were in india you see. soon i did not want and his companions were fighting a bloody battle against teams. a lemonade. in my family. the akhil family had twenty eight members. they were all slaughtered outside the house like sheep animal him by the duck. mother was detained in her house a few days later she was freed and followed her son to a nearby village to which he'd been able to flee. he was never able to return to his family home. the
jewish leader david ben-gurion was appalled he publicly apologized for the actions thus intensifying a conflict with the right when your stream rests in his own ranks derriere seen as a symbol of jewish finance but the name also marks the start of a propaganda war he'll be added has had to share with the claims made at the time for example that women were raped that were untrue. everything that was written about the victims was untrue. day yes ceilings lost ninety three martyrs. in heat. the witnesses spoke of ninety three dead not two hundred but few wanted to know the truth it was not until nine hundred ninety eight that a palestinian journalist who was involved at the time revealed in a b.b.c. documentary why and how the figures were manipulated.
for quite clearly a key even up the i asked the palestinian leader dr levy how we should report the story and then you're seeing what he said we have to hang it as high as we can to outline e bay and if it had that feeling wrote a press release claiming that in there you're seen children were killed pregnant women were raped and all kinds of other atrocities were committed. the propaganda worked three days later the arabs attacked a jewish convoy the victims were doctors nurses and students seventy seven were killed. but the jews also profited from the rumors and exaggerations about the violence committed in day yes in. the voluntary mass exodus of the arabs was convenient. and i'm a shelf or similar there you see it in the receipt ikey when my brother heard about
seeing. he decided we had to run with. my brothers i just got married and had children. they were afraid of dying afraid it would be their turn next. the family fled to see it on a coastal town in southern lebanon not far from where they had left their father telling him to go perhaps. in the evening the refugees were crammed into a mosque temporarily as they believed. start assuming one had also fled to lebanon where she found shelter in a camp. she hoped to soon return to her was a privilege in haifa in northern palestine. the twenty six year old fled with her two children. the stories of sad us women and many like her have long been suppressed in israel but this is also part of the
history of the birth of the state. saddam had lived up on the mountain and who was down in the valley she kept sheep and goats and sold cheese to her jewish neighbors today there's nothing left of her once or the name is a raised from the mouth. of the village leader to whom we went to present our concerns announced from the minaret of the mosque that we should leave the village. what were we supposed to do we had to go. they said we should go away for seven days and then we'll be able to return how they betrayed us give me another war. don't behind them. and their families and. at that time sat a trust in god and in the village leader the arab militias will defeat the jews soon but that promise of seven days ten and into decades. saddle share this fate or
seven hundred and fifty thousand palestinians. who are they refugees or displaced persons to this day there was still a difference of opinion. i would say that most of the people for who fled their homes fled their homes as a result of the war in the sense of battle approaching their homes fear of being harmed in battle is a general fear of living under jewish a rule which they did not want and so on i would say a minority is a small minority in fact that the end of the day who are physically expelled by the jews in the sense that the stayed in their homes a jewish force conquered their village or town and ordered them to leave in twenty four hours a small minority one hundred thousand maybe less is left the country or left their
homes as a result of that type of expulsion order i would say that even a smaller number left as a result of direct orders from arab commanders or officials. the refugees watched the withdrawal of the british in may nine hundred forty eight with anticipation as neighboring arab countries threatened war. four hundred thousand arab soldiers faced fancy thousand in equipped to have enough isis without british protection without local support. it was the imminent end of a state that didn't even exist yet. thus far in sears this filthy that was a very very heavy feeling is after all israel had no army at that time it was only the haka now and we knew that the armies from egypt were already modern armies with
airplanes cannons and tanks. it wasn't panic it but you knew it would be a difficult task to fight back in the panic of a command post augustus and it surely less to distance to come from what. may fourteenth one thousand nine hundred forty eight the end of the thirty year british mandate seemed like into feet the last governor was leaving the sinking ship not only the british had an inkling of what lay ahead. the egyptian army was already waiting for the order to attack the new two state but it had yet to be proclaimed. the jewish national council met in secret session for hours until of eve founding of the state yes or no david ben-gurion knew that everything spoke against it militarily and politically even the us strongly advised against it but the ben gurion it was now or never. as he made his way through the crowd that
afternoon the result had already spread like wildfire the committee voted six to four the yes for israel. we are gathered here today. on the last day of the british mandate on palestine. during our stay or stablish meant a jewish state in palestine. to be known. as the state of israel. then during an appeal to the arabs we extend our hand in peace. for the first time the ha to guard was played as a national anthem. hope the hope of being a free nation and the land of zion the text says. but as events
transpired ben-gurion would later write in his diary. toronto land a measurable jubilation and once again i feel like a mourner among cheerful people. on the night after the verdict the egyptian air force bombs television jordan syria iraq and lebanon also attacked from. behind and in the future gov't we had a feeling that if we didn't win then we'd be driven into the sea. you have to win. the port of haifa. this is westernizing and her husband jacoba arrived the next morning hoping for a new life in israel and a peaceful future they wanted to settle down need peace and quiet.
but may the fifteenth was the first day of war in the new homeland a saturday the sabbath. i carried i was very excited and had high expectations. but i knew the war had broken nose. i was terrified of what was to come after all i've been through a very much a bad week. for the new arrivals were initially accommodated in tents eventually and the october assigned an apartment in haifa. but the house wasn't empty only the residents were gone. escaped expelled. i shall marry you are you sure they were still furniture in the house
a table and chairs and it smelled strange. it was a nice to move into this house the whole street was empty it was dead he said the apartment seemed like a dead stuffed animal. i was supposed to build a new life based on the destroyed lives of others or unified the shame i had it should match you up here. on all fronts the most dangerous opponent was jordan with its powerful army. their main purpose in entering the country was simply to take over a large chunk of palestine that chunk all of a large part of their child which had been destined for palestinian arab statehood including east jerusalem which was a sort of a jewel in the crowd the holy sites and various other things. as the new ruler settled in and the palestinians had to live under jordanian occupation the
war continued in the south. egypt invaded the negev desert israel resisted fiercely . yakov as tyson's husband also for here he volunteered for the army. of wanted to defend his newly gained freedom . when he was allowed to spend a day in haifa with his wife and december to celebrate his twenty eighth birthday esther waited in vain and egyptian mesan had hit and killed him. to get clothes that i couldn't understand it. but it was true. again i was alone after all i had built up after all i thought i had achieved here in israel. to shap the shiny mystique gavi back into its. israel had won the first war and its young
history weeks after the staff the first cease fire negotiations began. the losers of the war seven hundred and fifty thousand palestinian refugees. they found shelter in the neighboring arab countries and overcrowded poorly supplied camps. so the arab states didn't really want this population in their midst. so they wanted them to return they also wanted the refugees to return because they understood that a mass return of refugees to israel would topple the israeli state it would undermine the israeli state. the refugees pawns in the conflict with israel. the situation is most devastating in lebanon their state let's denied many professions they cannot buy land that marginalized. what happened them still continues today. even sadder fled to lebanon the two children.
the family went on to have fifteen members accommodated in a two room apartment. is said that we still have hope in god i don't know i don't know. if you look at the arab rulers each one has taken a wife in his lap and had a good life. and we just we roamed the country begged lived like travellers barefoot without clothes they didn't even care. they had a good life god knows what will happen. sadder and her family was stuck in lebanon . refugee return remains a bone of contention in the peace negotiations. israel refused to allow the refugees back these were a few jews were part of the palestinian people who had in fact attacked them and
wanted to prevent the emergence of a jewish state had they allowed them back they would have represented a major fifth column inside the jewish state and would have destabilized the jewish state this is clear and this incidentally has been the israeli contention and position since forty to the present day they don't want to allow the refugees back because it will turn the jewish state into an arab state or the very least create chaos and destabilize a state because they don't want to live under jewish rule. when israel proposed a linebacker hundred thousand palestinian refugees as a compromise the arab states insisted on the return of all refugees. some lucky the un unable the return of refugees with families and israel and so he was able to go back to africa to his father together with the other return ease some became an israeli citizen one of one hundred sixty thousand. by legally yeah.
we were practically governed by jews. but that wasn't difficult. that wasn't the problem if you had to choose between the jews or the british when it was better to be ruled by the jews love the only hope that. i will is somehow this family settled in arca as israeli citizens and arabs like twenty. cent of the population. became the proud head of a large family with daughters and sons one became deputy mayor of a. but the one missing was mohammad his older brother who had to stay in lebanon because he already had a wife and children and israel had refused to let him back the brothers could only keep in touch by phone and you know this has that with as much as that is that there are arab families torn apart and hell of. a part of the story of israel. have a vision my brother wishes so much you could come back home and live here. i live
in my house in my country i work i'm fine i'm getting my rights he's not getting us rights cannot protect him. if he dies there he'll die in a foreign country what about the really. the foreign country on the other side of the border enemy territory. lebanon expelled the jewish population from the country after nine hundred forty eight as did many other arab countries. most of the eight hundred fifty thousand jewish refugees became israelis. they live in a country crisscrossed by fences and increasing border fortifications not exactly conducive to peace. in the old days and it comports where shimon ben i lived the young man from berlin a simple wooden tower sufficient protection from arab rains.
in more recent times this concrete bunker provided shelter during missile strikes from lebanon. from august fifth. when you meet people you don't say good evening or hello you say shalom to flee and that's peace this is that is the greatest dream i can imagine thought that the day will come when we can live together in peace in one beside the other under an. he who does not believe in miracles is not a realist and going on reportedly saying. there are days when miracles become tangible for example a sudden snow for the united arab and jewish children alone in a snowball fight. just the way apple is son and his friends want.
one way to survive where it's like hide your identity. we are scared we are very scared we have to state who knows me knows to fight for his heart against. bangladesh what is the true face of the country look like freedom independence a separation of state and church that used to be important but for decades political infighting here has hindered progress and islamist extremists are doing more influence democracy and the rule of law far on shaky ground you've just got to get it all down for the true meaning. it really. cannot. and will dash the dawn of islam as of an exclusive d.w. report starting april twenty first.